Камянецкая вежа

Kamenets tower

The Galich and Volyn annals of 1276 kept the fine story about foundation of Kamenets by Volyn prince Vladimir Vasilkovich: "The God also then enclosed a happy thought into the heart of prince Vladimir, he reflected to put up a town somewhere near Berestye. He also took books of prophets, mentally speaking himself: "My God, strong and all-powerful, creating and destroying by word, and what you, My God, will specify to me, the sinful slave, that I shall make". He opened the book, and Isaiah's prophecy dropped out to him: "The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me; because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound; To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn; To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, to give unto them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness; that they might be called trees of righteousness, the planting of the Lord, that he might be glorified. And they shall build the old wastes, they shall raise up the former desolations, and they shall repair the waste cities, the desolations of many generations*. From this prophecy prince Vladimir understood God's favour to himself, and started to search for a suitable place where to put up a town. This Earth became empty for 80 years after prince Roman. Nowadays the God has revived it with his favour. Vladimir also sent a clever man, named Alexa, which at the time of prince's father had constructed many towns, upwards on the river Losna by boats with local residents to find a place where a town can be put up. Alexa found such a place, came to prince and started to tell. Prince himself went with boyars and servants and grew fond of that place above a bank of the river Lysna. He cleared away it and then cut down a town, and named it Kamenets (Stone Town) because a ground was stony"1. At the same time there is also another version of an origin of the name the town - from "a stone pillar" (really stones on neighboring fields were not too numerous).

According to the Galich and Volyn annals, time of construction of a tower is between 1276 and 1288. The founder liked to be in his new castle, unassailable enough and close to a pushcha (dense forest). Maybe, he built a unprecedented tower at the edge of a princedom not only because of aggressive yatviags, but also as a residence removed from tiresome Tatars. In 1287 Vladimir Vasilkovich being already sick in order to avoid a meeting with Tatars, arrived from Luboml in Berestye, and, having stayed there for two days, left for Kamenets. "And here, in Kamenets, he laid in the illness and told the princess and servants: "As soon as this filth (Tatar commander Telebuga with his warriors - A.Y.) will leave our land we shall go to Luboml". Soon servants came to him to Kamenets and told, that his brother Mstislav distributed Vladimir's villages to his supporters. Vladimir sent the letter with reproaches, and Mstislav's ambassador came to him with expressing of humility. Calmed Vladimir went from Kamenets to Rai (town) and there dictated the will in which for the first time Kobrin was mentioned.

After Vladimir Vasilkovich's death (1289) the struggle between his brother Mstislav and nephew Jury for the inheritance (the prince had no his own children) began. Mstislav wanted to send ambushes to Berestye, Kamenets and Belsk, but it turned out, that there was already Jury's ambush. It proved to be that when Vladimir was still sick, Berestyans went to Jury and kissed a cross, speaking: "As soon as your uncle will die, we are yours and the town is yours, and you are our prince”. Having learned about Vladimir's death, Jury drove to Berestye and began to reign according to the advise of young boyars and Berestyans. When Mstislav had threatened to call Tatars for help, Jury left from Berestye, "having robbed all the houses of his uncle, and did not remain a stone on a stone both in Berestye, and in Kamenets, and in Belsk". Mstislav arrived in Berestye, but stayed there not for a long time, and went to Kamenets and Belsk, having put there ambushes, and all the local residents were glad to this.

In the 1-st half of XIV century Kamenets was included in the Grand duchy of Lithuania (GDL), and during division of Gedimin's inheritance fell to Keistut The town suffered from attacks of Teuton komturs in 1375, 1378 and 1379. In 1382 Keistut's son-in-law Mazovian prince Janusz occupied Drohiczyn, Melnik, Surozh and Kamenets as imaginary dowry of his wife Danuta. In 1383 Jagello seized the castle after a week siege, but soon ceded Kamenets and all Berestye land to Vitovt. During a period of Krevo union and Vitovt's struggle for sovereignty of GDL Jagello occupied Kamenets and left here a Polish garrison (1389). After their reconciliation Jagello and Vitovt frequently met here for meetings and hunting in the pushcha. An important road from the Crown (Krakow- Lublin) to GDL (to Grodno, Wilno and further to the East) passed through Kamenets; there were in the castle ambassadors from Europe, Novgorod and Pskov; in 1409 a legate of pope Alexander V delivered a bull about not- legitimacy of two antipopes to the Polish king; here, at a meeting with Vitovt, the English king's ambassador Jilibert de Lannoi came in 1421. In 1526 Sigizmund Herberstein, an ambassador of the German emperor, mentioned the town of Kamenets "with a stone tower in the wooden castle" in his "Notes".

Kamenets tower

Due to its castle, Kamenets since 1413 was the center of a powiat (district) in Troki and Podlassie woiewodstwos (regions), but in 1569 was included in Berestye powiat and wojewodstwo. The town and the castle so strongly suffered in the war of the middle of XVII century, that the sejm (diet) in 1661 released Kamenets from taxes for 4 years. After the Moscow-Swedish invasion the castle lost its military value, having remained only a court yard - the center of a starostwo (country). Inventories of the Kamenets castle of the XVIII century draw a picture of abandonment of the tower. Entry to the castle from the town conducted through a gate in an earth wall, then on a bridge through a moat, through another gate, on each side of which there were punishment cells (the castle also had functions of a prison). Across the moat on perimeter the yard was enclosed by a palisade. All the constructions were wooden, glass in windows was mounted in wood and tin, there were also a fireplace with stucco moulding and a tiled stove with eagles... "Outside the castle on an earth wall there is a tower under which there is a shelter with a door in it to the top circle... The bottom circle is without a door and any closing, this tower from above is immured, inside is ruined, in windows there are no glasses" (1728).

In 1757 when hetman Mikhal Kazimir Radziwill held a starostwo, in a detinets (inside castle) there was already a wooden palace, recently constructed, with six rooms, a dining room and a hall in which in the corners there were two fireplaces-lockers, and in studies - four round stoves. A fire-box of the stoves was under a hall in a vaulted cellar. (In 1896 on a place of the castle there were buildings of men's and women's schools. When during construction holes for their bases were being dug, an underground bricklaying was found. Most likely, it was the cellar of the palace mentioned above. Among inhabitants the legend went, that between the palace and the tower there was a underground passage.)

The castle was surrounded by a moat and a board fence. "The castle tower is round, high, brick, having under itself a crypt, half vaulted To an entrance into a crypt the tambour of the sawn logs, with an entrance door on veils is attached. The entrance into the crypt went through the same door, only with an iron grille. Recently a lobby of cut wood, with doors and a floor of boards was attached to the tower; and the doors of the same pine blocks, having six transoms and a floor of boards conduct to the tower itself^. About the upper circles nothing is told in the inventory, probably, they already were not used in any way. However, in 1761 in Kamenets a dragoon regiment quartered, and serving in it inquisitive Udalrik Radziwill with officers observed a rare astronomical phenomenon - passage of Venus through a disk of the Sun. Then still nobody thought of an origin and a historical value of a unusual tower.

The last known inventory of the castle from December, 28, 1822 describes an ordinary state court yard, not mentioning neither about earth walls, nor about moats. The tower appeared to be already beyond its borders, extraction of bricks from the tower began. "In the right side beyond the castle detinets there is a pillar or an ancient tower, immured of bricks, around it below there is a stack of taken out bricks, under it there is a cellar with a new attached tambour of pine wood, covered with shingles, with a ladder, immured jambs and a door. On the other hand of the tower the warehouse is made... Above the tower there is a brick holey vault. Below there is a ladder for an opportunity of repair at the top of this building".

Kamenets tower

It is surprising, that in 1826, right after accessions to the throne, emperor Nikolay I ordered not to destroy ancient buildings, castles in particular, and to repair, though to repair only a gate in them or the necessary premises. The Ministry of Internal Affairs requested from governors data about presence of such antiquities. Grodno civil governor K.O. Maksimovich directed an inquiry to district police officers. On November, 3, 1827 the report from Brest "about presence of a stone pillar in Kamenets, belonging to the counts Weliogorskis" was received. The police officer measured a pillar and informed, that the height of it was equal 35,5 arshin, a circle - 48 arshin, thickness of walls - 3 arshins. "Bricks are not spoiled at all and so as (pillar) is constructed of ancient good stuff bricks are almost hardened into stone, and this pillar is rather strong, and only in the middle there are still some storeys, upper floors are damaged".

The district police officer could not find out, when and what for "the column or tower" in Kamenets had been constructed , but learned, that in the times of Magdeburg town law this column as a coat of arms had been represented on the seal. Local residents stated different versions. The first version spoke, that the tower had been constructed by a certain apanage prince to imprison his brother for crimes and the other same one had been supposedly constructed in Kamenets-Podolsk or in Helm for arrest of the second criminal brother. Others considered, that in days of residing yatviags in local places the tower had been used for defense and in it several hundred men could be located on one floor, and there had been three floors. "Near that tower there is a castle built of wood on an earth wall, on the one hand surrounded by a river and from three sides by moats; and during battles when the castle was besieged, the garrison protecting a town in such buildings was located and from here threw shells necessary for its rescue through windows". The police officer's report contains the version of an origin of name of Belovezhskaya pushcha (White Tower dense forest) from the name of this tower, once called Belaya vezha (White tower) it had been whitewashed with lime, "the traces are conserved now".

In 1837 Ignatiy Kulakowski sent to the Grodno governor translation from French "The pillar of Kamenets of Lithuania" and a picture with an effigy of the tower. Date of foundation of Kamenets is specified in the text - 1276. In "The Grodno provincial news" (1845. Addition to N° 32) an article "The Tower in Kamenets of Lithuanian signed by "Ig. K." was published The author (Ignatiy Kulakowski) wrote, that in 1809 the Volyn annals had been found, and in 1837 he, "being in capitals", saw it in Rumiantsev's museum. Further the annalistic story about foundation of Kamenets is quoted, but the motive of construction of a pillar is stated naive: in memory of stay of the prince It is informed, that inside there were still traces of wooden steps, and from half of height there were upwards steps laid out in walls. Stone vaults with holes, still in 1834... in the dome of the building. In the bottom of the tower there are extensive cellars.

The Grodno building commission directed the assistant to architect Kalenkevich to Kamenets with the task to describe a pillar. He confined himself to a summary record: the tower has five floors, a wooden overhead cover and a brick vault covering a top, had completely fallen.

In the book famous "Ancient Poland", issued in Warsaw in 1846, Mihal Balinsky described briefly conditions of Kamenets and the tower: "...now it is a sickly town, only one this pillar, without the use already almost five centuries, sticks out with its ruins above mass of low peasant houses. Inside this respectable monument the rests of oak ladders of unknown times were kept, but from the middle of height there are upwards steps in the wall; vaults though are full of holes as a network, however still keep; under a tower there are extensive cellars"2. Together with Balinsky neighbouring landowner I.A. Khersonsky examined and measured the tower; he also made a fine figure. The description of the Grodno province by M. Bobrovsky (1862) also marks stone steps and oak beams in the tower.

Kamenets tower

The question on repair of the tower arose in 1853- 1866, probably, the sad destiny of the Kolozha church here played its role. At that time the Kamenets court yard belonged to landowner Kosarzhevsky. In the Grodno building commission the plan of the tower was found out, it is not known by whom and when it was made, but no works were carried out

In 1869-1881 authorities again became interested in the Kamenets tower. Data from the provincial building commission do not give anything new, in comparison with former data; it is marked, that local residents name a tower "pillar", and also that the cellar under it was blocked by vaults. At that time in Petersburg I.I. Sreznevsky's publication appeared which retold Budilovich's letter from August, 2, 1864 with description of Kamenets and the towers. Budilovich sent to Sreznevsky figures of a wooden church and a tower and told his supervision. "Thickness of toothed walls of a tower (1 sazhen and 2 vershoks) gives an occasion to conclude, that it was a fortress in old time. Height of the tower is 12 saszen 2 arshins, diameter is 6 sazhen. From northeast it is visible for 15 verstas. A mountain on a bank of the river according to all attributes is erected: a correct round view and a steep slope on 2 sazhens testify about it. In the tower there are 4 floors; the 1-st one kept a vaulted ceiling, the others - the decayed wooden beams. Windows are narrow (4 vershoks), the length has a growth of the man, only on the 4-th floor there are 4 big windows in 4 cardinal points and the 5-th one is narrow. Above there is the vault, walls are ended with stupid teeth. The vault from above was covered with the layer of sand overgrown with weeds and trees. The big stone cellar was below. It is constructed of red bricks; the mortar and limy bricks so hardened for centuries, that all column is as if one big stone. The landowner, deceased Kosarzhevsky tried to break into bricks, but could not. Now the column stands empty, good-for-nothing". Local residents recollected, that else about 10 years ago on Sundays and holidays a banner had been hung out above a pillar. While there was a divine service, it was forbidden to begin bargaining on a market. People told, as if giants had built a pillar, kneeling; people spoke also, that the pillar was a gravestone monument to a giant. However a certain archeologist informed Budilovich, that a pillar had been constructed by Volyn princes in XIII century as a border fortress.

In 1881 in "The Lithuanian eparchial news" priest Balabanovich gave the description of a condition of a tower in 1879. A surface of an erected hill is rough so the monument "stands in a hollow where the part of water is flown down at thawing snow or at rain. Its height is 16 sahzen, the diameter is more than 6. Bricks are of three colours: dark-yellow, dark- red, dark-brown. Walls are of brown-red colour. In the lowest basis, near a passage to the 2-nd floor, they crumbled away, especially in the lowermost part. These depressions by depth in 2,5 bricks took place because of action of flowing down water and human hands. Stupid teeth became overgrown with weed, some parts fell off. The top vault, according to inhabitants, collapsed several years ago, but not earlier 1864. Inside there are not any traces of floors, only depressions where there were beams, heaps of the broken bricks lay on the lowermost vault". During revolt of 1863 in a tower a military store-room was situated, even there were cannons.

Balabanovich counted four floors in the tower, including a cellar with the undamaged vault and a round aperture in the middle. The passage into a cellar was closed by nothing. The entrance to the 2-nd floor according to the order of of the stan (small district) police officer was nailed by boards, however children nevertheless took out bricks. The author noticed traces of plaster inside the top floor. He described an arrangement of windows on floors and their form. "About 20 years ago (i.e. in the middle of XIX century) the tower had been still enclosed by fence which did not remain also a trace after itself. Now around a tower dirt and sewage make inconvenient review of it. Animals find a shelter to themselves in a cellar and in crumbled away parts of external walls".

Owners of the Kamenets court yard including a tower, since 1798 were count Wielgorski, then Kosarzhevsky, after 1863 - Russian landowner Ivanov. In 1879 the court yard was bought by figureheads at a name of Shtark, the inspector of national schools, and Balabanovich was afraid, that a pillar could soon be transformed into a barn or a warehouse. The private commission on preservation of a monument of an antiquity was formed which hoped to restore the top vault of the tower and to enclose territory with a fence But it did not take place.

In 1899 at the request of the Imperial Archeological Commission (IAC) the academician of architecture V.V. Suslov investigated the Kamenets tower and made the project of its restoration. Emperor Nikolay II ordered to be restricted to the necessary repair: 1) to restore external facing of walls and window apertures where it is damaged; 2) to correct teeth according to the drawing of academician Suslov and to cover them with stone plates; 3) inside the tower above to make a conic roof which should not exceed above teeth in any way and which basis should settle down at a level between teeth for a drain of water. Works were been executed per 1903: the destroyed sites of walls and teeth were bricked up, wooden beams and laps between floors were stacked. Peasant of Motykalskaya volost (small rural district) Semion Draniuk made 10 thousand bricks for restoration. The laying was carried out by the master from Grodno Adam Artishevsky3. Besides, the layer of the soil of height of 3 m was rejected from walls of the tower and the surface of the formed earth wall was laid out by stones. Thus, there was opened the bottom circle of the tower considered as a cellar ( judjing by stone laying inside it was used as an ice-house but it could also be a severe prison as in European donjons).

The towers similar to the Kamenets one, were also in Berestye and Grodno; two towers are preserved near Holm, however they are much more modest than the Kamenets tower in the sizes and architectural-building qualities. In the laying of the Kamenets pillar natural stones were not applied as in Holm towers. For a construction it was required to make almost half-million bricks in the size about 26,5x13,5x8 sm, of dark red and yellowish colours. For the best binding the brick has on one plane longitudinal furrows (as though from fingers of a hand). The laying on a limy white and grey solution also has high quality, thickness of seams is 2-4 sm. For binding lines of bricks in them are alternated by two "stretchers" and one "header" (Baltic or Vend laying). In the tower for many centuries there were no significant damages because of natural influences. Walls become thin upwards, forming outside of a small inclination to a vertical axis. They have no any horizontal or vertical partitionings, are cut only by windows - loopholes, only in the top the tower is surrounded with four lines of a teeth brick row. In the first circle there are two loopholes, in the second and the third - per three, in 4-th - per two and the big aperture framed by a modest Gothic portal. It is, probably, an ancient entrance faced to the river, later a balcony was attached to it. In 5-th circle four loopholes with expansion inside and outside, and between them flat niches with a semi-circular consummation which once were plastered and whitewashed. Steps in walls, since 3-rd circle, lead onto the top of the tower with 14 teeth, in each of them there is the small aperture serving for supervision at enemy bombardment. Outside and inside in the laying of walls there are many regular recesses for fastening scaffolding. During archeological research M.A. Tkachov found out the base of depth of 2,3 m and diameter about 16 m under the tower; up to that time it was unknown, the base was built of field stones with pouring clean fine sand4. The tower was originally divided inside into five circles by board laps on wooden beams with their various quantity. Laps between 2-nd and 3-rd circles kept on two mutually perpendicular lines of beams, counting on the big loading. It's not clear, when above two bottom circles vaults had been erected; most likely, in the end of a gothic style, but not in the XIX century as M.A. Tkachov believed. He also asserted, that the tower till 1950-s had not been whitewashed, and the name of Belovezhskaya pushcha (White tower forest) is not connected with its name.

The Kamenets tower-donjon represents a unique monument of military architecture in the Eastern Slav lands. Having arisen in Normandy, this type in XI-XIII spread across Western Europe, having reached the lands of Western Russia. The strict massive shape of a tower reminds Romance architecture, but lancet and 3-blade consummations of apertures, together with altitude give the reason to rank it to the earliest monuments of a Gothic style on the Belarus lands. Since 1950 the tower is a branch of the Brest museum of regional studies.

History of Kamenets will be incomplete if to be limited to the story about one Kamenets place of interest - the tower - and not to mention church antiquities.

Description of Kamenets of 1562 specifies in it four churches: of Annunciation, of Resurrection, of Nativity of Christ and of St Simeon. The Annunciation church had been founded by prince Vladimir Philosopher, ceased to exist in 1654. The church of Nativity of Christ is described in 1579 as very ramshackle, but having an iconostasis. In 1797 this church burned down during a fire of the town, the wonder-working icon with the image of Our Lady of "the most ancient fine painting" (the rear side of a linden board scorched, but faces remained intact) was kept only. Parishioners together got the rich silver gilt riza and massive wreaths. After closing a parish in 1835 the icon was transferred to the Simeon church and was put on an upper place. People especially revered this precious relic5.

Kamenets tower

The Resurrection church for the first time was mentioned in 1562. In 1637 Kiev metropolitan Peter Mogila founded a monastery with a church of Resurrection. Townsmen constructed the church, only monks served in it, the supreme authority belonged to the Kiev metropolitan; Makary Tokarevsky was the first Father- Superior. Land possessions of the monastery were confirmed by kings Wladyslaw IV Vasa (1639), Michael Korybut Wiszniewiecki (1670), Jan III Sobieski (1676). The monastery was mentioned last time in 1726. The temple being in the Lithuanian street, by 1782 had decayed so, that the utensils from it was transferred to St Simeon's church, but by the end of XVIII century it had been rebuilt, and in 1835 it was ascribed to the Simeon's church. The church which had been lop-sided from age was described by Budilovich in his letter to I.S. Sreznevsky: "I am not familiar with theory of arts and I can not determine, to what style magnificent murals and icons of this church belong, but also for an inexperienced eye it represents something especial, rare in local territory. An iconostasis in it is small and king's doors are very tiny. The icon of the Saviour, obviously, is renewed unsuccessfully. The temple image of Resurrection is rather original: below is set of demons - in pork and other images. But painting of the eastern behind-altar wall is excellent. Twelve apostles in all growth and ten feasts, all with Slavic inscriptions, were well kept and of fine painting. Many icons were transferred from the Resurrection church to the new Simeon church, all of remarkable painting. Moreover at an entrance to the old church two icons of rare painting amaze. Walls are painted rather skilfully too, but already in days of church Union - under strong influence of Latin painting. The Saints in an air of monks under the canopy of trees pray with unusual humility and bitterly cry about sweets of paradise, this is a contrast to the orthodox effigy of beholding hermit, even St Onufry (his image is in the church too). Dresses of the Saints are all ordinary, sometimes with application to the Palestinian climate, except of Archangel's helm, a shield and a spear, rather original. I did not found secular painting like a portrait*. Being afraid of reconstructing the church, Budilovich wrote: "Ifs bitterly to think, that excellent, but a little bit darkened painting can come into the hands of any provincial dauber who does not be careful to alter all in his own way, or that the antiquity will go onto an attic..."6. Unfortunately, Budilovich's fears proved to be true: nothing kept off the Resurrection church.

In 1835 in Kamenets the only Simeon's parish has remained. In 1759 on the place of the decayed old church the new one, with a two-tower facade and a dome, was constructed On September, 29, 1839 it became a cathedral. The temple image in the end of the XIX century was painted by Wilno artist LP. Trutnev. The bell of weight about 500 kg with images of the Saviour, Our Lady and St Nicolas was cast in 1887 at Samgin's factory in Moscow. In 1912-1914 on the high hill the new, stone cathedral, with five domes and a high tent bell-tower above an entrance (the project of architect VA. Srok) was constructed7. In 1920-s the inhabitant of the village of Pruska Feodosiya Philippovna Traychuk in memory of her son ( a pilot who had perished in 1918 in France) and regent of chorus Semion Pavlovich Korneliuk bought a three-storeyed carved oak iconostasis for the temple. Earlier it was made for a lateral altar of Alexander Nevski's cathedral in Warsaw (1912).

A remarkable Chetya Mineya8 (a sermon orthodox book) of 1489 copied by a priesfs son Berezka of Novogrodek and kept nowadays in Kiev, most likely, is connected with the ancient Simeon's temple. In it on one of pages the inscription with cinnobar specifies a place of creation, a name and an origin of a scribe: "This book, named Chetya was copied in a town of Kamenets under great king Andrey in a year 6997 ( i.e. 1489 A.D.), and at that time king's chief of the kitchen sir Tretina held Kamenets in lease, and the scribe of this book was Berezka of Novogrodek of Lithuania, Litovka priest Semion Dolbnich's son; and Berezka wrote himself from the very beginning of the book up to the half, from St Simon till the Forty saints.. >. It seems strange the mention of king Andrey in an inscription because Kazimir Jagellon was the king in 1489. But a record in the brief "Chronicle of the Grand duchy of Lithuania" (the Olshevo code): ".. .King Andrei Kazimir died in 1500 A.D." specifies to us, that Kazimir Jagellon had also the second name. Famous Kiev professor N.I. Petrov considered, that the inscription had narrated about Kamenets of Lithuania (the manuscript had been found nearby, in Sedltsy province). He noticed the presence of Southern Russian (Ukrainian) and Belarusian words in the Church Slavonic text that was typical for the Brest region. A.I. Sobolevsky unquestionably considered the manuscript as "Western Russian*. Involvement of the

Simeon's church in creation of the book (it was situated if not in Kamenets but not further than in Brest where from ancient times there was an orthodox monastery of St Simeon on the Pillar) can be specified by the fact that the scribe's father, the priest of a church in Litovka (near Novogrodek), was named Simeon Dolbnich, and also that the scribe began his work on St Simeon's day.

The Volyn chronicler pathetically summed up a life of prince Vladimir Vasilkovich who had died in Luboml on December, 10, 1289: "He was a multireasonable booklover and a philosopher who had been never on all the Earth and never would be after him. He gave the begging, dressed the nude, redeemed the debtors... For years of the reigning he constructed many towns after his father. He constructed Berestye, and beyond Berestye he constructed a town on the empty place named Lestne, and named it Kamenets... In it he constructed a stone tower of height of 17 sazhen, worthy of surprise of everyone who sees it. Also he put a church of a Annunciation of the sacred Virgin, and decorated it with gold icons, and forged silver sermon vessels and put in it the Gospel fettered with silver, and the Apostle and other church books and a cross...". So, having rounded Kamenets, Vladimir Vasilkovich was worried not only about its defense but also about church and spiritual life of its residents. Books and icons presented by the prince didn't preserve, but at the place of his church St Simeon's cathedral towers and the Kamenets pillar as seven centuries ago astonishes visitors with its simple and majestic architecture.

© Ярашэвіч А.А., тэкст, 2005
© Дрыбас А.П., Раманюк Дз.М, фота, 2005
© Бажэнаў Ю.В., пераклад на англійскую мову, 2005

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Каментары чытачоў
Віта напiсаў(ла) 08.04.2011 17:55

Вялікі дзякуй за артыкул! Вельмі карысныя звесткі і здымкі!!!!

У мяне ёсць два пытанні:

1) "....Валынскі летапісец пранікнёна падвёў вынік жыцця князя Уладзіміра Васількавіча..." - адкуль узяты гэты матэрыял? Словы у двукоссі, а крыніца не ўказана....

2) Гэты валынскі летапісец насамрэч пісаў:".... пабудаваў царкву Благавешчання..." ? Вядома, што блага на беларускай мове зусім не тое, што на рускай, можа там мелася на ўвазе царква Дабравешчання?

Дзякуй.

Admin напiсаў(ла) 08.04.2011 19:19

"Князь же Володимеръ въ княжении своемъ многы городы зруби по отци своем. Зруби Берестий, и за Берестиемъ зруби город на пустом мѣстѣ, нарицаемѣм Льстнѣ, и нарече имя ему Каменець, зане бысть камена земля. Създа же въ нем столпъ каменъ высотою 17 саженей, подобенъ удивлению всѣм зрящим на нь. И церковь постави Благовѣщениа святыа Богородица, и украси ю иконами златыми, и съсуды скова служебныа сребрены..."

Галіцка-Валынскі летапіс

Iniskimmiste напiсаў(ла) 06.05.2017 04:30

Вы можаце пакінуць свой каментар, уласную думку ці пытанне па выкладзенаму вышэй матэрыялу.